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Underground and Independent Comics, Comix, and Graphic Novels

1. About the Database

Underground and Independent Comics is the first-ever scholarly online collection for researchers and students of adult comic books and graphic novels. At completion, this collection will include more than 100,000 pages of materials, including 75,000 pages of primary materials (the comics themselves), and more than 25,000 pages of materials about comics—interviews, commentary, theory, and criticism—from The Comics Journal and other secondary sources. You can request a more detailed bibliography by emailing our sales department at

A summary of the total issues and series in the current release can be found under the "What's New" tab on the homepage.

2. Editorial Policy

The aim of this collection is to provide a comprehensive view of alternative comics from the 1960s to today, particularly those from North America. There are a limited number of pre-1960s materials included due to their influence on later works and their overall historical significance.

The collection contains scans of both original comics and reprint books. Wherever possible we have included the original comic books instead of, or in addition to, later reprints. Since many underground comics were anthologies, we have only included those stories for which we have received permission from the copyright holders.

Please contact the editor at if you have any questions on these policies.

3. Explicit Materials

This collection contains graphic scenes of sex, violence, and drug use that some may find offensive. It is therefore recommended that this collection not be viewed by children or those that are sensitive to such materials.

4. Acknowledgments

At Alexander Street, the following people have been instrumental in the development of the collection:

Becka Rosenberg
Feng Chen
Greg Urquhart (Editor)
Hao Xu
JiaJun Zhu
Kimberly Milio
Michelle Eldridge
Mike Kangal
Mike Wathen
Nazar Sharunenko
Pat Carlson
Paul Dixon
Stephanie Garrett
Stephen Rhind-Tutt
Thomas Christ
Will Whalen
Xiang Kun
Ziep Truong

5. Advisors and Contributors

Karen Green: Karen is the Classics Librarian and Graphic Novels Selector at Columbia University. In addition to launching Columbia's impressive collection of comics and graphic novels, Karen writes a regular column for Comixology, called Comic Adventures in Academia.

Denis Kitchen: As a writer, cartoonist, editor, publisher, entrepreneur, and scholar, Denis has been involved in the underground comix movement since its birth. Through his publishing company Kitchen Sink Press, Denis has worked with virtually every artist to have produced underground comix since the 1960s. His most recent book, Underground Classics, is available from Abrams Comic Art. Denis can be reached at Denis Kitchen.

Jim Danky: Jim is the author/editor of dozens of books on topics as varied as African-American newspapers, women's publications, and the Native American Press. He is on the faculty of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he also founded and directed the Center for the History of Print Culture in Modern America. Jim is the co-author of Underground Classics with Denis Kitchen.

Gary Groth: Gary is the founder and president of renowned alternative comics publisher Fantagraphics Books. In 1976, Fantagraphics began publishing The Comics Journal, the first publication of its kind to feature regular criticism and news coverage of the comics industry.

Peter Coogan: Dr. Peter M. Coogan writes about comics, is the director of the Institute for Comics Studies and co-founder and co-chair of the Comic Arts Conference, which runs during the San Diego Comic-Con International and San Francisco WonderCon. ASP is indebted to Peter for the use of his painstakingly assembled index of the early issues of The Comics Journal.

Randy Scott: Randy Scott is the Assistant Head of Special Collections at Michigan State University Libraries, where he oversees the largest public collection of comic books in the world. Randy's index to the MSU comics collection, including the later issues of The Comics Journal, has served as an invaluable resource for the development of this collection.

6. Subscription and Free Trial Information

Underground and Independent Comics is available for one-time purchase of perpetual access, or as an annual subscription. Please contact us at if you wish to begin a subscription or to request a free 30-day trial.

7. Technical Support

You can contact us by email at, or via telephone toll-free on 1-800-889-5937

When reporting a problem please include your customer name, e-mail address, phone number, domain name or IP address and that of your web proxy server if used.

8. Errata

Our intention is to have a database without errors. We appreciate suggestions for improvements and notice of factual errors. To report errors or to suggest improvements, please email the Editor at Please identify the title, collection, publisher, and publication date, as well as the issue itself, whether in the materials themselves or the metadata. Please also include your email address, so that we can let you know the status of your correction.

9. Copyright

All materials in the database are protected under U.S. and International Copyright Law.

10. Cataloging Records

MARC records will be available for this collection.